Nuclear Power and Public Health Measures in Nuclear Plant Emergencies

Exposure Pathways

ØExternal dose from plume overhead (cloud shine) or material on ground (ground shine).
ØInternal dose due to inhaling materials directly from plume or from stirred dust.
ØIngestion of contaminated materials in the form of food or water.
Emergency Planning Zone
ØAreas for which planning is needed to assure that prompt and effective actions can be taken to protect the public
ØPlume EPZ: radius of approximately 10 miles
ØIngestion EPZ: radius of approximately 50 miles

Exclusion Area

ØAn area surrounding the plant such that an individual located at any point on its boundary will not receive a dose to the whole body exceeding 250 mSv (25 rem) nor a dose to the thyroid exceeding 3 Sv (300 rem) within 2 hours of the postulated incident
Classification of Emergencies
ØUnusual Event: a potential degradation of the level of safety of the plant
ØAlert:  readiness of on-site and off-site response organizations increased.
ØSite Area Emergency:  event resulting in major decrease in protection of public or on-site personnel.
ØGeneral Emergency:  event resulting in risk requiring implementation of urgent off-site actions.

Exposure Guidance for Responders

ØAll activities:
–5 rem TEDE, 15 rem eye, 50 rem organ
ØProtecting major/valuable property:
–10 rem TEDE, 30 rem eye, 100 rem organ
ØLife saving or protecting large populations:
–25 rem TEDE, 75 rem eye, 250 rem organ
ØExceed latter only on a voluntary basis by persons fully aware of risks involved
ØRisk of injury in rescue and recovery operations shall be minimized
ØRisks to responders shall be weighed against benefits to be gained
ØRescue actions involving substantial personal risk shall be performed by volunteers
ØEach individual subjected to emergency dose limits shall be thoroughly briefed
ØVolunteers above age of 45 preferred
ØTEDE shall not exceed 1 Sv (100 rem)
ØInternal exposure should be minimized
ØExposure under such conditions should be limited to once in a lifetime
ØPersons receiving exposures above 250 mSv (25 rem) should avoid procreation for several months

Guidance for Population Protection: 3rd Principle

ØThese actions should be introduced and withdrawn at levels that produce a maximum net benefit to the population
–guidelines available from USEPA, IAEA,   and IRPA
–may well be driven primarily by logistical considerations (e.g., availability of transport, availability of temporary shelters, etc.)
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