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Radioactive Material – Enformable http://enformable.com Tue, 02 May 2017 22:21:42 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=4.7.8 https://i2.wp.com/enformable.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/enfoicon-11-e1430233969135.png?fit=32%2C32 Radioactive Material – Enformable http://enformable.com 32 32 29887482 Software allows users to identify and measure Alpha, Beta, and Gamma particles with a $20 webcam http://enformable.com/2012/08/new-software-allows-users-to-identify-and-measure-alpha-beta-and-gamma-particles-with-a-20-webcam/ http://enformable.com/2012/08/new-software-allows-users-to-identify-and-measure-alpha-beta-and-gamma-particles-with-a-20-webcam/#comments Fri, 10 Aug 2012 18:39:14 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=34973

Measuring radioactivity has a long history and innumerable academic and commercial applications in nuclear safety, defense, medicine, biology, material sciences, etc.  That may soon change, now anyone can start their own virtual lab and explore nuclear science with a $20 webcam.

It’s more than just radiation detection with devices like Geiger counters, the software capabilities can classify the type of radiation and can differentiate between various kinds of radioactive materials. They track the real-time dark noise statistics to find the right threshold. Then, there is an analyzing step when the particle energies are estimated, all software-based and done in real time.

The webcam sensor is shielded from visible light by aluminum foil and uses a special software package to analyze the video stream for characteristic patterns.

Beta particles can be measured with high precision (error < 5%) but the relative hit rate depends on the material of the measurement sample – this indicates that the sensor’s sensitivity varies with the particles’ energy.  It is however unable to detect neutrons even from strong sources, and further work would be needed to do so, such as submersion in helium gas.

Source: Vienna University of Technology

“GeigerCam: Measuring Radioactivity with Webcams” – Overview

Step by Step Instructions

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Jaczko again sole dissenter on NRC commission after Fukushima – Siding with Pilgrim Nuclear critics in supporting public hearings http://enformable.com/2012/02/jaczko-again-sole-dissenter-on-nrc-commission-after-fukushima-siding-with-pilgrim-nuclear-critics-and-supports-public-hearings/ http://enformable.com/2012/02/jaczko-again-sole-dissenter-on-nrc-commission-after-fukushima-siding-with-pilgrim-nuclear-critics-and-supports-public-hearings/#respond Sat, 25 Feb 2012 04:41:08 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=29943 The Pilgrim plant, a 680-megawatt boiling water reactor, began operation in 1972. Its current operating license expires on June 8, 2012. Entergy is seeking to re-license the plant for an additional 20 years.  The majority of the NRC commission (4 to 1) voted to deny the watchdog group Pilgrim Watch’s most recent appeal to reopen a relicensing hearing to raise concerns about Pilgrim’s plans to contain radioactive material in the event of a disaster similar to the one at Fukushima.

To date, the NRC has approved life extensions for all 70 reactors that have submitted re-licensing application, despite still grappling with how to implement a series of new safety standards recommended by a federal task force earlier this year in the aftermath of the Japanese nuclear disaster.

“Given the significance of that accident (at Fukushima) and the potential implications for the safety of our nuclear reactors, we should allow members of the public to obtain hearings on new contentions on emerging information,” NRC Chairman Gregory Jaczko wrote in a dissenting opinion released Wednesday. Jaczko also criticized any efforts in attempt to silence any concerns related to Fukushima, believing such an approach to safety would “lead to inconsistent outcomes and, more importantly, unfairly limit public participation in these important safety matters.”

Jaczko has repeatedly publicly stated that “the greatest possible openness furthers the Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s work on the protection of the environment and of public health and safety.”

On February 9, 2012 Jaczko cast the lone dissenting vote on plans to build the first new nuclear power plant in more than 30 years when the NRC voted 4-1 to allow Atlanta-based Southern Co to build and operate two new nuclear power reactors at its existing Vogtle nuclear power plant in Georgia.

He cited safety concerns stemming from Japan’s 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, saying “I cannot support issuing this license as if Fukushima never happened”.

Carol Wightman, spokeswoman for Entergy Corp., Pilgrim’s owner, would not comment on Jaczko’s dissent but welcomed the commission’s action.

“Entergy is pleased with the decision regarding the late-filed appeals, and we look forward to the NRC decision on license renewal,” she said.

Attorney General Martha Coakley unsuccessfully tried to suspend the relicensing of Pilgrim in November 2011 until the after implications of the Fukushima Dai-ichi disaster in Japan have been fully studied, being particularly concerned about the impact that a meltdown could have on the pool that contains spent nuclear fuel at Pilgrim.

On Wednesday, over 50 people packed public meeting in Hyannis last night to speak out against the proposed renewal request.  Some of the local citizens voiced concerns about a 1990 Massachusetts Department of Health study that pointed out elevated levels of leukemia among residents living in the region around Pilgrim Power.

State Sen. Dan Wolf, who represents most all of Barnstable County, called for the shutdown of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant.   Entergy Nuclear, the owner of the Pilgrim plant, declined an invitation to have a representative speak at the forum.  “I think we have a responsibility to get the answers to questions and not accept the re-licensing of that plant until those questions are sufficiently and adequately answered,”

The senator also pointed out that Pilgrim Power has been online for 40 years and renewing its license would keep it in operation until it is 60. He then challenged the crowd to take a look at the electrical appliances and equipment in their own homes and find something that is “60-year-old technology.”

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Japan confirms some areas surrounding Fukushima Daiichi likely permanently off-limits to habitation http://enformable.com/2012/02/japan-confirms-some-areas-surrounding-fukushima-daiichi-likely-permanently-off-limits-to-habitation/ http://enformable.com/2012/02/japan-confirms-some-areas-surrounding-fukushima-daiichi-likely-permanently-off-limits-to-habitation/#comments Fri, 24 Feb 2012 19:44:24 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=29923

A few hours after the earthquake and subsequent tsunami, the reactors at Fukushima Daiichi began to leak radiation into the environment reportedly first from the Unit 1 reactor shortly after 17:00 when radioactive steam was released from the primary circuit into the secondary containment area to reduce mounting pressure.  Radioactive material has been released from the Fukushima containment vessels as the result of deliberate venting to reduce gaseous pressure, deliberate discharge of coolant water into the sea, and accidental or uncontrolled events.

Japan rapidly approaches the anniversary of the March 11 disaster, the nuclear power industry, which just over a year ago supplied a third of its power, is virtually in paralysis.  The Japanese government has been unable to control the spread of radioactive material into the nation’s food,  water, and materials.   Radioactive material has been detected in a range of produce, including spinach, tea leaves, milk, fish and beef, up to 200 miles from the nuclear plant. Inside the 12-mile evacuation zone around the plant, all farming has been abandoned.

This week, Japanese officials have confirmed that some areas surrounding the Fukushima nuclear power plant like  the town of Futaba, to the northwest of the plant  that was wrecked last year by a massive tsunami will likely remain permanently off-limits.

A final report by the environment ministry, expected in the coming weeks, is expected to declare as permanently off-limits to human habitation any area with contamination of more than 50 millisieverts per year.  This in contrast to the Japanese governments stance in August 2011, when they believed that it might take “more than 20 years before residents could safely return to areas with current radiation readings of 200 millisieverts per year, and a decade for areas at 100 millisieverts per year”.

A survey in Iitate has also shown that the local citizens not only face the worry of health effects from the disaster, but also the desperate loneliness of living in separate locations, one-third of all surveyed families live apart from their children, while 50.1 percent live away from other family members (including elderly parents) with whom they lived before the disaster.

Iitate was designated by the government as an emergency evacuation preparation zone on April 22, 2011, approximately a month and a half after the outbreak of the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima No. 1 Nuclear Power Plant following the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami.

“Stress is causing disputes among many evacuated residents,” Iitate Mayor Norio Kanno told the Mainichi in a recent interview. “Depression and the collapse of families are increasing. There are conflicts between family members, people from different generations, and people who want to return and those who can’t go back,” Kanno said.

“Many residents feel that they have been forced to evacuate because of a man-made disaster, not a natural calamity,” says Kanno. “Before, when bad weather or other problems occurred, everyone was on the same boat — so people had the will to help each other. In the case of a natural disaster, people know that even if there are difficulties at the beginning, they can eventually start all over again even from scratch. However, when one is fighting against radiation pollution, starting a new life three, or even five years later is not easy. That is one of the characteristics of (the invisible damage caused by) radiation.”


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Tokyo Bay residents worried as concentrations of radioactivity found in riverbed http://enformable.com/2012/02/tokyo-bay-residents-worried-as-concentrations-of-radioactivity-found-in-riverbed/ http://enformable.com/2012/02/tokyo-bay-residents-worried-as-concentrations-of-radioactivity-found-in-riverbed/#respond Thu, 16 Feb 2012 17:25:13 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=29084

Near the mouth of the Sumida River in Arakawa-ku, flowing into the Tokyo Bay, the Ministry of the Environment has been testing the concentration of radioactivity in water and mud of the riverbed.  The Ministry of the Environment is set to publish the results of a survey on the end of March.  Initial tests showed some concentrations which alarmed residents and caused them to worry about eating fish from the rivers and bay areas.



According to the Ministry of the Environment, radioactive material was released at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident are carried on the wind, with rain drops to the Kanto Plain, entering the river.

Experts have pointed out that there is a possibility that radioactive material was also introduced into the bay through the narrow portions of rivers that feed into the bay where the radioactivity could collect and could potentially be found in highly concentrated portions of the seabed.



Source: Yomiuri


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Two upgraded “Quince” robots to aid Fukushima work revealed by Chiba Institute http://enformable.com/2012/01/two-upgraded-quince-robots-to-aid-fukushima-work-revealed-by-chiba-institute/ http://enformable.com/2012/01/two-upgraded-quince-robots-to-aid-fukushima-work-revealed-by-chiba-institute/#respond Mon, 30 Jan 2012 14:50:13 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=27149 One of the robots is designed to measure radioactive material trapped in dust in the air, the other is equipped with a laser-scanner to create a three-dimensional map.

It was also announced no plans have been made to rescue the original Quince robot which is currently trapped in the Reactor where it broke down last year.

Source: Yomiuri

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Fukushima Daiichi Research – Remediation of Affected Areas http://enformable.com/2012/01/fukushima-daiichi-research-remediation-of-affected-areas/ http://enformable.com/2012/01/fukushima-daiichi-research-remediation-of-affected-areas/#respond Wed, 25 Jan 2012 19:50:34 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=27029 Remediation of Affected Areas

Shunsuke Kondo Chairman

Japan Atomic Energy Commission

Ladies and gentlemen, it is a great pleasure for me to explain the activities for the remediation of off-site areas affected by the accident, given in the second report of the
Government of Japan to the IAEA on the Accident at TEPCO’s Fukushima Daiichi NPP.

As is well known already, a wide area around Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP was contaminated by the large releases of radioactive material during the accident. Based on
the results of various radiation monitoring activities, we have identified highly contaminated areas as shown in Figure 1.

In these days major contaminant is Cesium isotopes, of which half-life is about 2 years in the case of Cs -134 and 30 years in the case of Cs-137.

Fukushima Daiichi Research – Remediation of Affected Areas

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Suspected that concrete with contaminated gravel used at 6 hospitals http://enformable.com/2012/01/suspected-that-concrete-with-contaminated-gravel-used-at-6-houses/ http://enformable.com/2012/01/suspected-that-concrete-with-contaminated-gravel-used-at-6-houses/#respond Mon, 23 Jan 2012 17:39:33 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=26967 Contaminated radioactive material in concrete continues to be found as the Japanese government works to find the extent of the distribution.  The gravel being stored from quarries in Fukushima prefecture was contaminated by radioactive materials released by the Fukushima Daiichi plant.  This gravel was sold to companies, like mixed-concrete companies who used the materials on construction projects.

The latest finds show that companies like these used contaminated concrete in single-family housing and it was also used in 6 hospitals and nursing homes in Nihonmatsu and Fukushima.

Source: Yomiuri

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Japanese Government Group Says SPEEDI Unreliable http://enformable.com/2012/01/japanese-government-group-says-speedi-unreliable/ http://enformable.com/2012/01/japanese-government-group-says-speedi-unreliable/#respond Thu, 19 Jan 2012 14:10:45 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=26772 A government commission evaluating guidelines on nuclear disaster management released a plan Wednesday asking authorities to refrain from using SPEEDI, a computer system that judges whether residents should evacuate based on its predictions of radioactive fallout after a nuclear accident.

Under current guidelines, evacuations will be ordered when exposure to radioactivity is expected to reach at least 50 millisieverts, based on SPEEDI predictions and accident circumstances.  The SPEEDI system has cost more than 13 billion yen in development and maintenance expenses.

The SPEEDI systems key failures were that it was unable to get information related to reactor cores at the site of the accident and made calculations based on the input of provisional data.  This allowed for even less reliability in the accuracy of the information produced.

It was also shown that the SPEEDI system was unable to make any accurate predictions regarding the area of radioactive contamination as the materials dispersed during the accident changed frequently due to changes in wind direction.

The working group of the Cabinet Office‘s Nuclear Safety Commission said, “Predictions made by SPEEDI have a large degree of uncertainty, making it unreliable during times of emergency.”

Toshimitsu Honma, chief of the group and director of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, said if the system has no information on the time when radioactive material is released and the quantity dispersed, SPEEDI “can predict nothing more than wind direction.”

Source: Yomiuri

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SPEEDI information provided to United States Military But Not Japanese Citizens http://enformable.com/2012/01/speedi-information-provided-to-united-states-military-but-not-japanese-citizens/ http://enformable.com/2012/01/speedi-information-provided-to-united-states-military-but-not-japanese-citizens/#respond Mon, 16 Jan 2012 17:24:59 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=26593

Representatives of the Japanese Ministry of Education were called as witnesses by the Accident Investigation Board in charge of discovering the true nature of the Fukushima nuclear disaster.  During questioning it was determined that the predictive data from SPEEDI, which forecasts and predicts spread of radioactive material after a nuclear disaster, had been provided to the U.S.Military.

According to NHK, the data had been compiled immediately after the accident, and provided to the US through the Foreign Ministry.  The Ministry of Education decided that the published data did not accurately predict the actual situation, and may have lead to unnecessary confusion if released to the public.  For these reasons the data was not published immediately, and evacuees were abandoned to make decisions with the government only telling part of the story.

Source: NHK



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Radioactive Gravel Shipped to 100 Companies – Used in Farms & Golf Courses http://enformable.com/2012/01/radioactive-gravel-shipped-to-100-companies-used-in-civil-engineering-farms-golf-courses/ http://enformable.com/2012/01/radioactive-gravel-shipped-to-100-companies-used-in-civil-engineering-farms-golf-courses/#respond Mon, 16 Jan 2012 03:58:37 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=26573 Recently radioactive material was found in a newly built condominium in Nihonmatsu, Fukushima Prefecture.    The crushed stone is used as a raw material to make mixed concrete.

Some of it has already been used in farms and golf courses in civil engineering in the prefecture.

Source: Yomiuri

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April 17th, 2011 – Evacuations mentioned by IAEA and MSM are really relocations http://enformable.com/2011/12/april-17th-2011-evacuations-mentioned-by-iaea-and-msm-are-really-relocations/ http://enformable.com/2011/12/april-17th-2011-evacuations-mentioned-by-iaea-and-msm-are-really-relocations/#respond Thu, 29 Dec 2011 21:30:08 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=24742 From: Franovich, Mike
Sent: Sunday, April 17, 2011 1:17 AM
To: Ostendorff, William
Cc: Nieh, Ho; Kock, Andrea; Zorn, Jason
Subject: IAEA distributed document 4-17-11
Attachments: Summaryofreactorunitstatus at_17-AprilOOOOUTC.pdf

Attached is the latest IAEA report which is quite comprehensive. Some items to note from the report:

Work on the backup system to provide alternate cooling water to the RPVs is ongoing.

On 13 April, NISA requested TEPCO to conduct an assessment and report on the current status of earthquake-proof safety of the Fukushima Daiichi reactor buildings and to identify what countermeasures might be needed.

As a countermeasure against a possible future tsunami, the electrical distribution boards for the pumps injecting water to the reactor pressure vessels of Units 1, 2 and 3 were transferred to higher ground on April 1 5th

The removal of rubble (amount equivalent to a container) using remote-control heavy machineries was carried out on April 1 5th

Some relocations of residents beyond 20 km due to assessment of long-term exposure. This is being reported as “evacuations” in the IAEA report and in the media when they are really relocations based on PARs and local dose assessment.

Japanese testing and approach to limit radioactive material into the ocean. Three sand bags containing Zeolite material have been deployed in front of the inlet screens (seawater intake). The Zeolite material is designed to capture specific radioactive elements. It is intended to sample and analyze the Zeolite material periodically to determine the effectiveness of this procedure. (BTW, according to NHK news, Zeolite is supposedly effective at absorbing Cesium 134/137).

On April 1 6 th, restrictions were lifted on the distribution of raw milk produced in 24 areas in Fukushima prefecture.

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March 29th, 2011 – Status of 3 Units and 4 pools – Realistic Scenarios http://enformable.com/2011/12/march-29th-2011-status-of-3-units-and-4-pools-realistic-scenarios/ http://enformable.com/2011/12/march-29th-2011-status-of-3-units-and-4-pools-realistic-scenarios/#respond Thu, 15 Dec 2011 19:54:13 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=22107 From: Brown, Frederick
Sent: Tuesday, March 29, 2011 10:56 PM
To: Cheok, Michael; Gibson, Kathy
Cc: Ruland, William; Dudes, Laura; Uhle, Jennifer; Hiland, Patrick; Hackett, Edwin; Skeen, David; RST01 Hoc; Hoc,
PMT12; McDermott, Brian; Coe, Doug; Scott, Michael; Brown, Frederick; RST01 Hoc
Subject: Request for Ops Center RTS support
Importance: High

Mike, Kathy

First, I’m not sure that you two are the right folks to ask, but I know that you’ll know where this should go.

I’d like to have folks with the right skill set look at two issues (the two are inter-related, but the first may be easier to give a quick answer to without the work that the second will take):

1) Given the known, or assumed, status of the three units and four pools, what realistic scenarios exist for energetic dispersion of high quantities of radioactive material that would result in mobile plumes?

The point of this question is that there are many clear scenarios that present significant near-area radiological challenges, but given the time since shutdown (for the operating units) and age of much of the fuel (in the SFPs) what are the remaining scenarios of concern with respect to more distant locations (Tokyo with a large concentration of US citizens, Alaska, Hawaii, etc).

2) Given the assumed condition of the three units and four pools, can we generate basic event trees for the coming weeks/months? The point would be to identify key success criteria and to help identify key decision points/risk factors to be balanced (qualitative not quantitative analysis).

For instance, take tw units, each with significant core damage and prior release of volatile fission products, each with primary and secondary containment failure, but one with an intact RPV and the other with a breach of RPV -would there be a difference in potential releases that would lead to different strategies for flooding the primary containment of these two units?

This question will make more sense if you look at the assumed conditions below and the attached assessment document where we recommend that TEPCO utilize the SAMG recommendation to flood all 3 units’ containments.

Note that the intent is to limit this activity to hours and days, not weeks ory•ears. Once we validate the concept of this evaluation, we can turn it over to US industry for further action/development.

Assumed status (slightly different than the status in the attached assessment):

Unit 1 Rx: Shutdown 3/11. 70% core damage. Cooling with 30 gpm. Significant salt deposits in vessel, core spay plugged. Primary pressure 65 psig. Drywell pressure 25 psig. Secondary containment destroyed. Containment has been vented at least once since fuel damage occurred. Attempting to establish Nitrogen purge prior to resuming venting.

Unit 2 Rx: Shutdown 3/11. 30% core damage. Significant salt deposits in vessel/drywell. Assumed RPV breach, with at least some core ex-vessel that ocurred approximately 3/15. Primary containment breached in the torus. Secondary containment breached. Significant release of volatile fission products has occurred through both airborne release and also via water drainage out of the Rx building.

Unit 3 Rx: same assumptions as Unit 2, but do not assume RPV failure and location of primary containment breach may be the drywell.

SFP 1: 292 bundles. Pool intact. All fuel at least 12 years old. No secondary containment. Rubble on top of pool. Water can be added through external spray. Now at saturation temperature.

SFP 2: 587 bundles. Pool intact. Water added to the point of pool over-flow. Pool had reached saturation temperature at one time.

SFP 3: 548 bundles. Y4 core offload previous refueling. No checker boarding of hotter fuel. Structural damage to pool area suspected. Pool leakage possible. External addition of water has been made repeatedly, but flooding of pool may not be possible due to damage.

SFP 4: 1331 bundles. Full core offload about 120 days ago. No checker boarding of hotter fuel. Structural damage to pool area is known to exist, and structure may not support a full pool weight load. Pool leakage likely, requiring addition of water periodically. Pool was likely dry enough to have cladding/water reaction which produced enough hydrogen to lead to catastrophic explosion that destroyed secondary containment.

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Secondary Containment Degredation at Millstone http://enformable.com/2011/12/secondary-containment-degredation-at-millstone/ http://enformable.com/2011/12/secondary-containment-degredation-at-millstone/#respond Mon, 05 Dec 2011 14:57:17 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=19390

Power Reactor Event Number: 47496
Region: 1 State: CT
Unit: [ ] [2] [ ]
RX Type: [1] GE-3,[2] CE,[3] W-4-LP
Notification Date: 12/03/2011
Notification Time: 16:53 [ET]
Event Date: 12/03/2011
Event Time: 12:35 [EST]
Last Update Date: 12/03/2011
Emergency Class: NON EMERGENCY
10 CFR Section:
50.72(b)(3)(v)(C) – POT UNCNTRL RAD REL
Person (Organization):


Unit SCRAM Code RX CRIT Initial PWR Initial RX Mode Current PWR Current RX Mode
2 N Y 100 Power Operation 100 Power Operation

Event Text


“On December 3, 2011 during operator rounds, it was discovered that an Enclosure Building (secondary containment) door sweep had failed and was not providing an adequate seal.

“Technical Specification (TS), ‘Secondary Containment Enclosure Building’, is applicable in Modes 1,2,3, and 4 was entered at 1235 [EST]. Since secondary containment was rendered inoperable, Dominion is reporting this as a condition that could have prevented the fulfillment of the safety function to control the release of radioactive material. The door has subsequently been repaired, the Enclosure Building declared OPERABLE and the TS Action Statement exited at 1524 [EST]. Further engineering review will be conducted to more fully evaluate the impact on radiological controls.

“This condition is being reported pursuant to 10 CFR 50.72(b)(3)(v)(C).”

The licensee has notified the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, surrounding towns and the NRC Resident Inspector.

The Millstone Nuclear Power Station is the only nuclear power generation site in Connecticut. It is located at a former quarry (from which it takes its name) in Waterford. Of the three reactors built here, units two and three are still operating at a combined output rating of 2020 MWe.

Unit 1

Millstone 1 was a General Electric boiling water reactor, producing 660 MWe, shut down in November 1995 before being permanently closed in July 1998. On February 20, 1996 a leaking valve forced the shutdown of this unit, and unit 2; multiple equipment failures were found.

  • Construction Permit Issued: May 19, 1966
  • Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Filed: November 1, 1968
  • Provisional Operating License Issued: October 7, 1970
  • Full Term Operating License Issued: October 31, 1986
  • Full Power License: October 7, 1970
  • Initial Criticality: October 26, 1970
  • Synchronized to the Grid: November 1970
  • Commercial Operation: December 28, 1970
  • 100% Power: January 6, 1971
  • Leaking valve forced shutdown multiple equipment failures detected: February 20, 1996
  • Permanently Ceased Operations: July 21, 1998

Unit 2

Millstone 2 is a Combustion Engineering plant built in the 1970s, and has a maximum power output of 2700 MWth (870 MWe). It has 2 steam generators, and 4 reactor cooling pumps (RCP). It is currently undergoing an upgrade to its safe shutdown system which already met NRC standards. During its refueling outage in October 2006, the operator installed a new pressurizer.

  • Construction Permit Issued: December 11, 1970
  • Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) Filed: August 15, 1972
  • Full Term Operating Licensing Issued: September 26, 1975
  • Full Power License: September 26, 1975
  • Initial Criticality: October 17, 1975
  • Commercial Operation: December 26, 1975
  • 100% Power: March 20, 1976
  • “Stretch Power”: June 25, 1979
  • Operating License Extension Requested: December 22, 1986
  • Operating License Extension Issued: January 12, 1988
  • Full Term Operating License Expires: December 11, 2010
  • Operating License Expires: July 31, 2015
  • Extended Operating License Expires: July 31, 2035

Unit 3

Millstone 3 is a Westinghouse plant that started operating in 1986, and has a maximum power output of 3411 MWth (1150 MWe). Recently, the NRC approved a power uprate for Unit 3 that will increase its electrical output 7.006% to 3650 MWth (1230 MWe). The increase will take effect by the end of 2008.

  • Construction Permit Issued: August 9, 1974
  • Initial Criticality: January 23, 1986
  • Commercial Operation: April 23, 1986
  • Operating License Expires: November 25, 2025
  • Extended Operating License Expires: November 25, 2045


On February 26, 1996, A leaking valve forced the shutdown of units 1 and 2, multiple equipment failures were found.

On April 17, 2005, Millstone plant safely shut down without incident when a circuit board monitoring a steam pressure line short-circuited, which caused the board to malfunction and indicate an unsafe drop in pressure in the reactor’s steam system, when in reality there was no drop in steam pressure. The cause was attributed to “tin whiskers“. In response to this event, Millstone implemented a procedure to inspect for these whiskers at every refueling outage, or 18 months. David Lochbaum, a scientist affiliated with the Union of Concerned Scientists, while remaining critical of the processes leading to the discovery of the whiskers, praised Millstone for its handling of the situation.[7]

In September, 2009, unit-2 shut down when an electrical storm caused power fluctuations. When workers tried to restart the unit, they discovered a small leak in the reactor coolant pump. [8]

12/21/2009 Millstone Unit 3 Reactor Trip and Shutdown Greater Than 72 Hours.

07/27/2009 Millstone Unit 2 Reactor Trip and Shutdown Greater Than 72 Hours

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45 tons of contaminated water leaks into sea from Fukushima Daiichi http://enformable.com/2011/12/leakage-from-evaporation-device-at-fukushima-daiichi/ http://enformable.com/2011/12/leakage-from-evaporation-device-at-fukushima-daiichi/#respond Sun, 04 Dec 2011 15:39:55 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=19092  


The radiation level of the surface of the contaminated water is 1.8 mSv per hour, but gamma rays, beta radiation were registered as high as 110 mSv.  The leakage may have contained about 100,000 becquerels per cubic centimeter of radioactive strontium out the Beta, this concentration is equivalent to a million times that of seawater concentration standards.



Source: Yomiuri

December 04, 2011

<Draining Water on Underground Floor of Turbine Building (T/B)>
◇Status of highly concentrated accumulated radioactive water treatment facility and storage tank facility [Treatment Facility]
・6/17 20:00 Full operation of radioactive material removal instruments started.
・6/24 12:00 Start of desalination facilities operation
・6/27 16:20 Circulating injection cooling started.
・8/7 16:11 Evaporative Concentration Facility has started full operation.
・8/19 19:33 We activated 2nd cesium adsorption facility (System B) and started the treatment of accumulated water by the parallel operation of cesium adsorption instrument and decontamination instrument. At 19:41, the flow rate achieved steady state.

12/2 18:00 After completing the reinforcement work to on-site power, we stopped the evaporative concentration apparatus in order to start receiving power from the power source*.
* 2nd cesium absorption facility continued operation and treated accumulated water. Reactor water injection was continued by desalinated water in the buffer tank. There was no impact
from this power source switch over.
12/3 8:04 We stopped the water desalination apparatus (reverse osmosis membrane type). 8:30 We stopped the cesium adsorption apparatus.

13:30 We restarted the water desalination apparatus (reverse osmosis membrane type) after power receiving operation.
14:22 We restarted the cesium adsorption apparatus

14:34 We restarted the evaporative condensation apparatus.

12/4 11:33 Workers found that there was puddle water inside the barrier around the evaporative condensation apparatus (the estimated volume of water was approx.45 m3). At 11:52, stopped the apparatus.

12:14 Workers made visual inspection of the apparatus and thought that the leakage stopped. After that, conducted investigation. At 14:30, we found crack in the barrier made of
concrete and water was leaking to the gutter (surface dose rate of leaked water: beta ray 110mSv/h, gamma ray 1.8mSv/h). We are considering emergency response to stop leakage of
water to the outside of the barrier. In the meantime, water desalination apparatus is continuing operation. As we have sufficient volume of desalinated water, there is no impact on the Reactor water injection.

[Storage Facility]
・6/8~ Big tanks to store and keep treated or contaminated water have been transferred and installed sequentially.◇Accumulated water in vertical shafts of trenches and at basement level of building

From 17:48 on December 3 – MP-8’s dosage rate data was lost. As we could not figure out the cause and could not resume, we used an alternative dose rate meter located around MP-7 and MP-8 (enhancement to monitoring that
coincides with nitrogen injection to RPV). The most recent data did not have change from that of the day before. We are planning to repair MP-8.

19:07-21:01 on December 3 In order to transfer and cut the power cable* for the auxiliary transformer power board that receives power from Okuma Line 2L, we changed the power source for that power board. With this work, lighting at rest places, local air extractor and continuous dust monitoring at the main gate, anti-earthquake main building and rest places at the service building for Units 5 & 6 stopped. After completion of the power source switchover, stopped equipments resumed operation.
* This is a preparation work to stop leakage of water from the duct, STr, Unit 3 to the control building found on August 4 (announced on August 8).

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March 30th, 2011 – Michigan confirms radiation from Fukushima detected http://enformable.com/2011/12/march-30th-2011-michigan-confirms-radiation-from-fukushima-detected/ http://enformable.com/2011/12/march-30th-2011-michigan-confirms-radiation-from-fukushima-detected/#respond Sat, 03 Dec 2011 17:19:11 +0000 http://enformable.com/?p=18986 From:Phalen, Martin
Sent:Monday, April 18, 2011 12:29 PM
To:Burza, Justine
Subject:FW: DEQ news release on radiation detection in MI
Attachments:033011 iodinealert.doc

From: Logaras, Harral
Sent: Thursday, March 31, 2011 3:39 PM
To: Phalen, Martin
Cc: Chandrathil, Prema; Mitlyng, Viktoria; Barker, Allan; Heck, Jared; Pederson, Cynthia
Subject: RE: DEQ news release on radiation detection in MI


Thanks for sharing this press release from Michigan. I like what Michigan has done – using their own measurement products and putting the results in context.

Harral Logaras
U. S. NRC Region III
Regional Government Liaison

Link to the Award Winning NRC Information Digest http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doccollections/nuregs/staff/srl35O/v22/sr1350v22.pdf

Link to NRC Fact Sheets and Brochures http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/

From: Phalen, Martin
Sent: Thursday, March 31, 2011 3:24 PM
To: Chandrathil, Prema; Mitlyng, Viktoria; Logaras, Harral; Barker, Allan
Subject: FW: DEQ news release on radiation detection in MI

Just thought that you might be interested …….

From: Mitchell, Mark
Sent: Thursday, March 31, 2011 2:41 PM
To: Phalen, Martin; Cassidy, John; Go, Tony; Dickson, Billy; Myers, Valerie
Subject: FW: DEQ news release on radiation detection in MI

March 30, 2011


For More Information Brad Wurfel, DEQ, 517-373-7917, wurfelb(Dmichipqan..qov
Kelly Niebel, MDCH, 517-241-2112, niebelk(amichiqan.gov
Ken Yale, DEQ, 517-241-1278, yalek(rmichigan.qov.

Radioactive material from Japanese nuclear plant detected in Michigan air

Detected levels pose no health threat

The Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has detected very low concentrations of iodine-131, a kind of radiation released from the nuclear power plant in Japan, in an air sample taken over the past week.

The levels detected in Michigan pose no health threat to residents.

The DEQ’s Radiological Protection Program performs regular monitoring of air samples taken in Lansing. The air sampler runs continuously, processing 50 liters of air per minute for a total of 504,000 liters last week. The average human uses 7 liters of air per minute. Air monitoring staff change the air sampler filters each Monday morning and analyze the filters in DEQ’s radiological laboratory.

Monday’s lab results indicated a total activity of 23 picocuries or 0.85 becquerels of iodine-1 31, a signature radioactive isotope for Japan’s nuclear power plant emergency.  These are scant detection levels, even when compared to the radiation levels people are exposed-to every day. For example, a typical banana contains 15 becquerels of potassium 40, a common radioactive isotope.

Officials at the Michigan Department of Community Health said the scant levels detected by DEQ monitors are thousands of times less than what would trigger any sort of protective action recommendation, such as taking potassium iodide, a drug that protects the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine.

During the height of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986, the DEQ measured iodine-131 levels that were 4 times higher than the current results. Even at those levels, the resulting dose to Michigan residents was thousands of times less than the activity triggering protective action recommendations.

The DEQ has conducted regular monitoring of air, milk and rainwater for radiological detection since 1958.

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